History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar, Saharanpur before Prithviraj Chauhan
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -34
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -279
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
King Chand Rai of Sarsava/Sarsawa (Saharanpur)
The first Muslim attack on South Garhwal started from January 1019. On that time, King Chand Rai or Raja Chandra of Sarsava (Saharanpur) was ruling over west -south Garhwal. Most probably, King Rai had rule over Bhabhar Garhwal, south of Dehradun Garhwal, Sirmaur region of Dehradun and Haridwar Garhwal. There was strong forte at Sarsava under King Chand Rai. There were strong forts of King Chand Rai in hills parts. Less historical records are available for Chand Rai.
Attack by Muhammad Ghaznavi or Ghazani
In 1001, Muhammad Ghazani won Jaypal and captured the territory from Kabul to Udmand. He looted cities, villages, temples of Punjab. In 1018, Ghazani looted Bulandshahar, Mathura, Kannauj and captured lakhs of people and made them slaves.
Returning from Kannauj to Ghazani, Muhammad of Ghazani used rout of foot hills of Himalaya.
Chand Rai taking Shelter in Dehradun Forests
Knowing the march of Muhammad of Ghazani through foot hills of Himalaya, the king of Sarsava Chand Rai took shelter along with his army in Dehradun forest. However, Ghazani attacked Chand Rai with suddenness and defeated Chand Rai. Ghazani captured his armed forces including army horses and elephants. Ghazani’s army killed whoever came on their way.
Muslim or Turkish historians describe the looting of Dehradun.
The army of Ghazani checked the dead bodies (whom they killed) and took away the ornaments. The gold, silver and other gems were counted for the value of three lakhs Dirham. It is said that Ghazani army captured seven and half lakhs prisoners. Each prisoner was sold at ten Dirham. Yavanhaur, Iraq and Khurasan were filled by slaves. The army of Ghazani looted Dehradun region for three days. That means the Ghazani army also looted Haridwar and Haridwar.
Administration of Chand Rai
The Muslim historians describe Chand Rai as one of the capable administrators of contemporary India. He had big army and had strong forts. He was not afraid of Muhammad Ghazani.
The loot and slave making descriptions suggest that the population in Dehradun, Saharanpur, Haridwar and Bhabhar was quite dense. The people were prosperous. The Ghazani attack was sudden and people could run towards hills of Garhwal.
Nothing is on record about death of Chand Rai. No record is available whether Ghazani army killed Chand Rai or he escaped. Nothing is written about the administrative parts after Ghazani fleeing from Dehradun and Saharanpur (including Haridwar).
The archeological findings suggest that Sarsava was a rich and high traffic trading city.
**History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar to be continued …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com 5/3//2014
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11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
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14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -280
Notes on History of Garhwal; History of Pauri Garhwal; History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Tehri Garhwal; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Dehradun, Garhwal; History of Haridwar ; History of Manglaur, Haridwar; History of Rurkee Haridwar ; History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued…
History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Bhabhar Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Lal Dhang Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on today’s Kotdwara Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Rishikesh Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Harbatpur Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Gadhi Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Haridwar; History of Muslim Attacks on Rurkee Tehsil Haridwar; History of Muslim Attacks on Laksar Tehsil Haridwar;