East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal

East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal

Anglo Nepalese War with Reference to Gurkha Rule over Uttarakhand -4
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -125
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -646
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

Policies of Wellesley for Nepal Relationship
The Company officials were of opinion that East India Company should capture Garhwal, Kumaon and Himachal for starting trade with Tibet and China. However, in time of Lord Wellesley as Governor General East India Company was involved with Maratha, Ranjit Singh for taking charge of Central and Western India. British were also involved with Napoleon. Therefore, it was not wise decision to attack on Nepal.
There was dispute between Nabab of Awadh and Nepal government for Tarai of Kumaon. In 1794, the war was inevitable between Nepal and Awdh. However, Company Resident Cherry intervened and stopped the war. Governor General was anxious to have cordial relationship with Nepal that many battle fronts were not opened. Cherry forced both the aprties to accept each other.
Archibald the surveyor surveyed Kashipur, Rudrapur, Jaspur etc and built cordial relationship with Subba Rudravir Saha and called him as King of Kumaon in a letter (Henry Wellesley Correspondences).
Policies of Minto for Nepal Relationship
Lord Minto was Governor General from 187-1813. Minto was also anxious to have cordial relationship with Nepal. In 1809, Minto requested the Nepal King for allowing Ruderfor for getting pines tree jungles from Kumaon and Garhwal for manufacturing resin in Kahsipur factory. In another letter Minto requested Nepal for Ruderford to train Kumaon and Garhwal people for getting resins from Pine trees. Minto was anxious to have trade relation with Tibet. When Moorcroft visited Tibet and came with Shawl wool and goats, Minto did not welcome Moorcroft. Nepal was unhappy with Moorcroft for visiting Garhwal the Nepal territory without permission. Nepal soldiers put Moorcroft in prison too and harassed him. Minto lambasted Moorcroft for visiting Tibet through Garhwal. No doubt in his last years of office, Minto warned Nepal government for attack from company. The warning was not for Tibet trade benefits but due to border disputes with Nepal.
Policies of Lord Hastings for Nepal Relationship
Many historians state that Hastings attacked Nepal for having trade with China and Tibet. He heard stories about minerals in Himalayan regions of Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal. Hastings also came to know that Central Himalaya is better region for reaching to Tibet. Hastings wanted minerals from Kumaon and Garhwal and ways to reach Tibet and China. Hastings wrote a note on his daily diary of 2nd December. On that day, Hastings was in Moradabad and rain was stopped after long time and sky was clear. Hastings watched Kumaon Himalaya and wrote -
“I was thrilled to watch that scene. No man did put his feet on that land nor would be able to do so. That natural wall compelled Indians to put all deeds there only. However, I am thinking about that trade which would be achieved capturing Kumaon from Nepal. By capturing Kumaon Hills we could reach to those shrines (Tibet border Himalayan shrines). There are passes in Kumaon through which reaching to Tibet is simple. There are people’s movement through these roads between Tibet and Kumaon. By capturing Kumaon we will have monopoly over Shawl Wool and we shall pay for those by exporting grains and agriculture utensils.(Pilimore, Hastings Journals).
In past too, every Company officials had same emotion about using nature for increasing trade of East India Company. Hastings diary is proof that British loved anything just for doing business.
However, many historians s argued that just for trade roads, Hastings was not ready for war with Nepal. The aim would be expansion of British ruled territory.
In June 1814, Hastings decided to have war with Nepal. However, in rainy season it was not possible to have campaign. Hastings completed all his planning and execution tools to attack on Nepal after rainy season. In between in rainy season Hastings was attracted to trade with Tibet through Kumaon and Garhwal.
Letter of Hearsay
There were many people to inform East India Company about potentiality of Garhwal and Kumaon for East India Company. Captain Hearsay travelled Garhwal with Reaper in 1808 and in 1812 with Moorcroft. He reported to Company about Neeti and Mana pass for reaching Tibet and mines of minerals. East India was attracted to Tibet and Garhwal-Kumaon. He also discussed in his letter about pine trees for ship buildings.
After a little survey, Company found that Kumaon is simpler way to reach Tibet and was decided to capture Kumaon in east India Company territory. Lord Hastings did not attack just for Trade benefits but there was more compelling phenomenon of border disputes between Nepal and the Company. Dehradun and Garhwal-Kumaon were also strategic defense territories.

** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/6/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -647
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

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History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal;
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal,
East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Pauri Garhwal and Trai Kumaon; East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Chamoli Garhwal and Nainital Kumaon; East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Rudraprayag Garhwal and Almora Kumaon; East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Tehri Garhwal and Champawat Kumaon; East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Uttarkashi Garhwal and Bageshwar Kumaon; East India Company Policies for Relationship with Nepal reference History Dehradun Garhwal and Pithoragarh Kumaon;

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