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Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period

Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period
History Botany Neolithic India – 4
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -9
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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Since, writing culture was not there in Neolithic age anywhere in the world, it is not possible to know the exact story of plant domestication. However, we can imagine that the Mesolithic or earlier age human beings had following knowledge about plant science and applied plant science.
1-Knowledge of difference between plant and animal food (calories and labour) – As already discussed in Mesolithic age chapter that human beings had knowledge of calorie differences between animal food and plant food and too the difference between animal food gathering and plants food in context labour requirement for animal food gathering and using plants for food and medical uses. Early human beings also got knowledge about the difference between risk factors in animal food gathering and plant food gathering or cultivated plant food.
2- Neolithic, Mesolithic and early age human beings faced the population growth problem (that is low standard of living due to population increase ) and human beings calculated /analysed by experiences that plant food was better alternate than animal food for satisfying population growth and initially plant food gathering was easier than animal food gathering. As Morand conclude by various archaeological findings that population pressure and climate stress were probably the cause of shifting to agriculture or crop or plant domestication and cultivation (1). That means that early human beings of early stone age , mid stone age and Neolithic Age were able to judge the value of plant food beneficial in new climate.
3-Risk Calculation – The early human beings of Stone Age including Neolithic Age calculated smartly the risk factors of animal hunting verses the food obtained by plants (collecting wild plant grains) and then getting the knowledge of plant domestication.
Plant Embryology Knowledge –Human beings of earlier Neolithic age and even in Neolithic age acquired knowledge of plant embryology, seedling etc. and all different stages of life cycle verses in each season. Human beings already got some or full knowledge of seeds germination at different seasons or climates and had knowledge of land suitable for some desired plants for cultivation.
Human beings had knowledge of reproduction system of selected plants and their reproduction system against seasons .
Human beings of earlier ages had knowledge of seed dispersal techniques and later on choose plant for domestication those had seeds of low intense dispersal system.
Human beings of earlier Ages and humans of Neolithic age had knowledge of food values and uses of all parts of desired plants.
Human beings of early age or Neolithic age were having knowledge of food processing of desired plants/seeds too.
Human beings had already knowledge of storing/stocking system of each plant seeds those that humans wanted to domesticate.
Human beings of Neolithic Age and earlier age were having knowledge of food value of seeds and cooking (roasting or other ways of cooking) of seeds of various plants.
Human beings had knowledge of animals those were harmful to plants which human beings wanted to domesticate from wild situation. Neolithic Age Human beings already had the knowledge of plant protection from various animals.
Selection of plants for domestication was already attained by human beings before Plant Domestication started.
The human beings of earlier age already gained rough knowledge of sowing methods ; water needs for germination, water needs for plant growth and soil , ripening time and season requirement for all stages of plan growth etc.
Human beings of Neolithic Age those domesticated plants had knowledge of tools requirements for plant germination, food processing and cooking etc. Definitely all those knowledge were being transferred through oral communication.
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References
1-Morand O.F. (2001 ) Population, technology and growth, memco
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Pakistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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