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Aug
16

Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule

Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) – Part 120

Early Medieval Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) –
(Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
(Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

By: Bhishma Kukreti

There were many historical ups and downs in Easter part of Middle East, North India, Central India and Uttarakhand at the time of last kings of Katyuris of Kartikeyapur.

Sarsava (North India) Kingdom
Around the time of successors of Subhiskhraj Katyuri period after 908Ad, the Katyuri kingdom started disintegrating.
The western block of Yamuna valley came under Trigart –Jalandhar kings.
The Sarsava king Naresh Chandra captured Ambala, Bbhabar of Saharanpur, Foothills of Dehradun and Sirmaur (Himachal) territories. Sarsava or Sarva was the capital of Sarsava kingdom at Yamuna bank.

Shahi or Shahiya King Jaypal
Jaypal King was ruling Shahiya kingdom was in western part of Sarsava kingdom till Kabul. Jaypal had two capitals –Lahor and Udmand (near Indus River bank). The Amir of Ghazani Sabuktigin and his son Mahmud started looting in Jaypal kingdom. Jaypal twice attacked with force on Ghazani Amir at Lamghan. Both time Jaypal got defeated. In 1001, Mahmud captured the territory from Udmand to Kabul. Mahmud captured four lakh people and took them to Ghazani.
Jaypal expired due to defeat shock.

Shahi Naresh Anand Pal

From 1001, Mahmud strengthens his kingdom and in 1008, attacked on Shahi kingdom ruled by Anand Pal. The Parmar king Bhoj and other north India kings helped Shahi Naresh Anand Pal by sending their armies for Anand pal the Shahi King. There was bllod bathed war in Udmand. Anandpal was just to win that his elephant got mad and Shahi Naresh Anand Pal had to run away. Mahmud ran behind Shahi Naresh Anand Pal till Nagarkot of Vyas valley. Mahmud and his army looted countless wealth from the territory. Anand Pal was defeated by Mahmud and Anand Pal took shelter of Mahmud.

Mahmud got the taste of wealth and made strategy to loot other Indian cities.
Mahmud attacked Thaneshwar in 1011 and looted there. Thanshwar king Ram was defeated by Mahmud.

Shahi Naresh Trilochan Pal

The son of Shahi Naresh Anand Pal got the kingdom after his father death. Bhim Pal the son of Shahi King Trilochan pal was not in mood to accept the rule of Mahmud. Mahmud captured the two third region of Trilochan Pal.

War between Shahi Naresh Trilochan Pal and Sarsava King

The Sarsava and Shahi kingdoms were adjoining to each other and both kingdoms did have disputes over Kingdom boundaries. Trilochan and Naresh Chandra of Sarsava fought each others.
Due to fear of Mahmud they came on talking terms. Trilochan Pal engaged his son Bhim Pal with daughter of Naresh Chandra. Trilochan Pal reached to Sarsava to take his daughter in law. However, Naresh Chandra arrested Trilochan Pal.
Mahmud was on campaigning to looting north Indian kingdoms –Ganga valley, Kannauj, Mathura etc.
Trilochan Pal was not ready to accept the over ruling of Mahmud and he did not have power to stop Mahmud. Trilochan Pal took asylum in Bhoj kingdom.
Mahmud looted Baran (Bulandshahar and Mathura. The king Kokkal Kalchuri resisted but was defeated and Kokkal Kalchuri had to opt for suicide.
Mahmud looted Mathura, Kannauj. Mahmud also captured lakhs of people for slaving.

Sarsava King Chandra

When Mahmud looted Ganga-Yamuna Doab, he started his campaign towards north. The foothills were easier way for taking the looted wealth to Ghazani.
The Sarsava king Chandra wanted to resist Mahmud but due to advice of Bhim Pal he reached to higher Himalayan altitude. Mahmud reached and to Chandra camp. Mahmud defeated Chandra.
Mahmud captured millions of Indians and made them slaves in Ghazani.

Shahi Prince Bhim Pal

Probably with the help of Bhoj and Vidyadhar Chandel, after Mahmud return to Ghazani, Trilochan Pal and his son Bhim Pal recaptured territory of east Shahi kingdom.

Kannauj king Pratihar Rajyapal came under Mahmud and became governor for Mahmud. Chandel king Vidyadhar killed Rajyapal for his coward behavior before Mahmud. Mahmud attacked (1012) North India to take revenge.
Mahmud started campaign from Himalayan foot hills. Trilochan Pal and Bhim Pal shoed resistance but were defeated by Mahmud.
Trilochan Pal was killed while running to Vidyadhar.
Bhim Pal took asylum in Ajmer Kingdom.
Shahi Kings resisted stopping invasion of Mahmud for twenty five years. Shahi kings were religious and with noble characters. Great poet Kalhan describes about Shahi kings in details.
Mahmud looted Somnath temple (1025-26).
Mahmud started looting culture and died in 1030. His successors ruled India thereafter.

Kalchuri Kings

Kalcharu king Gangeydev captured Kerdesh (Kangda) from Muslim invaders. Howver, Masud captured Hasi in 1036
Kalchuri king Karna defeated Muslim king in 1037 at Kangda. North Indian kings –Tomar of Delhi, Parmar King Bhoj supported Karna.

Parmar King Bhoj (1000-1055)
Parmar king sent his army for helping Shahi king Anand Pal for stopping Mahmud invasion. Bhoj also provided asylum to Trilochan Pal.

Struggle against Mahmud and Muslim invasion

The north and Central Indian kings did struggle for freeing Muslim invasion from India. These kings were Tomar King of Delhi, Bhoj, Kalchuri king Karn, Annhill Chahman.

Bhoj Rule over Uttarakhand

According to Udaypur inscriptions, Bhoj kingdom was extended up to Kailas and Rudrahimal of Uttarakhand.
Bhoj also built temple in Kedarnath too.
It is said that Garhwali kings were Parmar of Bhoj family.
Bhoj was great donor and scholar. He used to provide shelters to scholars.

Invasion by Muslim Kings

From 1051-57, Muslim kings recaptured Nagarkot, Ajudhan, Rupal, Darah, Jalandhar, Sarhind, Dhangan and Srughan. By 1075, Agara, Kanauj, Ujjain and Kalijar were under Muslim rules.

Chahman King Vgrahraj fourth

The rule of Ajmer king Vgrahraj fourth (1151-1167) was Delhi, Hansi, and eastern Punjab. He freed many Muslim territories.
According to Shivalik inscriptions, His rule was on Shivalik region too. It seems his rule wa s also on some part of Hill foothills of Uttarakhand.

Prithviraj Chauhman Third
Prithvirah got kAjmer kingdom from his father in 1177. He was killed by Mahmud Gori, Muhmad Gori attacked Gujrat and other territories.
Mahmud Gori attacked Sarhind in 1191. Prithvi Raj Chauhman defeated Gori and captured Sarhind fort.
In 1192, Mahmud Gori again attacked Chauhman kingdom and captured Prithviraj. Prithviraj was killed by Gori.

Start of Slavery Era

This era was the era of slavery in India >
Asylums by Hindus in Himalayan Hills

The suppressions of Muslim invaders compelled Indians to take shelters in Himalayan hills in mass.
The priests, Siddh, Mantriks, Tantriks , scholars, ascetics, Nath, Saints took asylum in Himalayan hills.
Katyuris provided shelters to these Hindus who did not accept the Muslim rules of converting into Islam.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -121
Early Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…
(Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)
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