Ratan Chandra: First King Who Started Land Revenue Management in Kumaon

Ratan Chandra: First King Who Started Land Revenue Management in Kumaon

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
(History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) – Part 160

By: Bhishma Kukreti

Ratan Chandra (1455-1468)

Ratan Chandra a Chand king is credited for initiating land revenue management first time in Kumaoni history. Ratan Chandra was son of Bharti Chandra. Bharti Chandra was nephew of King Kali Kalyan Chandra.
There are two views for Ratan Chandra ruling period. Atkinson states that Ratan Chandra ruled from 1450-1488. The list ‘A’ provides the information that Ratan Chandra ruled from 1461-1488.
The inscription of Bharti Chandra 9father of rattan Chandra) of 1451 declares Ratan Chandra as prince. The first copper inscription of Ratan Chandra is of 1455. There are no inscriptions of Bharti Chandra available from 1455-1468. Other inscriptions of Bharti Chandra are available from 1469-1499.
Therefore, Dr Dabral suggests that the ruling period of Ratan Chandra is from 1455-1468. After the death of Ratan Chandra, Bharti Chandra took again the rule of Champawat till 1499. Since, Bharti Chandra was old, his grandson Kirati Chandra used to look after administration.

Donation by Ratan Chandra

When Ratan Chandra and his father won the battle of Doti, got Chaugrkha territory and later on full authority to rule by his father, Ratan Chandra got honor. People and other smaller rulers started respecting Ratan Chandra. Jageshwar temple was under his Raut (rule). Ratan Chandra believed the blessing of Jageshwar temple for his success. Ratan Chandra performed rituals in Jageshwar and donated villages to Jageshwar temple.
Land Revenue Management

After getting ‘Raut’ (administration) by his father, Ratan Chandra started travelling in his ruled territory. Ratan Chandra started fixing rules for tax levies from farmers. It is said that it was first initiation of fixing land tax levies rules from farmers.

Second War with Doti
By many attacks on Doti king Nagmall by Bharti Chand, Nagmall was defeated but his power was intact. It was also decided that Chand kings would not pay tribute to Doti Katyuri king.
To regain power on Chand Kingdom in Champawat, Doti king Nagmall attacked on Kali Kumaon. Rattan Chandra took huge army and the army and exile Doti king Arjun Dev with him and defended attack of Nagmall then Doti King.
Ratan Chandra defeated Nagmall and in the battle Nagmall was killed. Arjun Dev took over again rule of Doti kingdom.
Arjun Dev started Doti rule as Arjunshahi and from that time, the Doti kings were called as Shahi Kings.

Capturing smaller territories by Ratan Chandra

There were smaller rulers nearby Doti kingdom. Jagarnath Bhatt was ruler of Jumla, Kharkasingh Mahra was ruler of Bajang (dr Dabral wrote Bhujan) and Shorsingh Mahra was ruler of Thal. Ratan Chandra terrorized them and they accepted over rule of Ratan Chandra. These rulers accepted to send every year the tributes of Horse1; Kasturi veena-1; Baj -1 and Arrow-bow-1. On that period, such types of tribute were symbols of accepting over rule by smaller or weak kings.
The rulers of above three territories paid tribute regularly to Chand Kings till Gorkha entered in the scene.
The list of Bajang rulers is available –
1-Raja Uttam Singh
2- Raja Raghunath Singh
3- Raja Shivraj Singh
4- Raja Indra Singh
5- Raja Ratna Singh
6- Raja Mahendra
7- Raja Gajraj Singh was alive till 1850 AD

Sheltering five families by Ratan Chandra

Ratan Chandra brought five Rajput families from Doti or across Kali River and provided them land in his territories. These families are Soradi, Deupa, Parchuda, Paderu and Chiral. From scial aspects, these families were equal to Chand caste.

Capturing Sor territory

Ratan Chandra extended his territory. Ratan Chandra captured Sor in 1468 but after his death in 1468, Sor became free from Chand king. The Bom family (related to Katyuri king family) were the rulers of Udaypurkot .
The following names of Bam kings are available
1-Karakil Bam
2-Kakil Bam
3-Chanari bam
4-Arki bam
5-Gyani Bam
6-Shakti bam
7-Vijay Bam
8-Hari bam
Ratan Chandra might have expired in 1468.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/10/2013


Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -161
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
(Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Notes on History of Kumaon, History of Champawat Kumaon, History of Doti Nepal, History of Bajang Nepal, History of Sor Kumaon, History of Kali Kumaon, History of Jageshwar Kumaon, History of Chaugarkha Kumaon, History of Sari Kumaon, History of Udaypur Kumaon,

  • Utkarsh

    Thank you Kukreti ji. Thanks for the information.

  • Utkarsh

    Kya main apse aur bhi jaan sakta hoon Uttarakhand ke barey main?
    Kripaya apna email ya phone number de payenge?

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