Jul
06

Saun: An Inspirational Garhwali Drama on losses Alcohol abuses

Saun: An Inspirational Garhwali Drama on losses by Alcohol Consumption
(Chronological History and Review of Modern Garhwali Stage Plays)
(Review for Stage Play ‘Saun’ the Stage play created by Kula Nand Ghanshala )
Review by: Bhishma Kukreti (Literature Historian and Critic)
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Alcohol consumption has become adduction for many rural Indians. Former health Minister Ramodas rightly said that Alcohol has become one of gravest public health issues. Famous Garhwali Stage play writer illustrate the alcohol abuses through his drama ‘Saun’. The drama is small and has only three characters and only one scene. A fifty years old man is addicted for country liquor consumption and calls regularly the country liquor from bazar through his 16 years old son. The old man offers useless arguments for his alcohol consumption as alcohol avoids tiredness. One day, the old man finds that his 16 years old boy started taking alcohol.
The drama is simple and inspires readers for to be away from alcohol consumption and never ask younger to bring alcohol. The drama also depicts the way young generation learns alcohol consumption.
Dialogues are as per class of characters and very sharp.
Government should make the drama staging compulsory in primary schools every year.
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Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti
Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Block, Pauri Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Chamoli Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Rudraprayag Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Tehri Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Uttarkashi Garhwal, South Asia; Losses by Alcohol Consumption, Garhwali Stage plays /dramas from Dehradun Garhwal, South Asia;

Jul
06

घरों में कई तरीकों से जल बचाया जा सकता है

घरों में कई तरीकों से जल बचाया जा सकता है

जल बचाओ श्रृंखल -7
Water Conservation series – 7

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विमर्श : भीष्म कुकरेती
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जल निर्मित नहीं हो सकता है अतः मनुष्य जल बचाने से ही जल संकट दूर कर सकता है। जल संकट में घरों में जल प्रयोग में असावधानी बरतना भी एक कारण है। प्रत्येक भारतीय अपने घरों में कुछ सावधानी बरत कर जल बचाव कर सकता है।
जैसे -
निम्न दबाब धरा शावर – यदि घरों में शावर का सर हेड लो फ्लो हेड हो तो कम जल उपयोग होगा और ऊर्जा बचत भी होगी
लो फ्लश ट्वाइलेट , कम्पोजिट ट्वाइलेट या डुअल ट्वाइलेट प्रयोग से जल उपयोग में कमी आती है।
सेवेज पवत्रिकृत जल का पाखाने में याने फ्लश में प्रयोग से साफ़ पानी की बचत हो सकती है
वेस्ट वाटर हार्वेस्टिंग विधि पालन
कपड़े धोने हेतु ऐसे माध्यमों (वाशिंग मशीन , डिटर्जेंट ) का उपयोग जो कम जल खर्चते हों।
वाश बेसिन में लो फ्लो टाइप प्रयोग
बगीचों में ऐसे पाइप टाइप टोंटी / नोजल का उपयोग जो स्वतः तब बंद हो जाय जब उपयोग न किया जा रहा हो
स्वीमींग पूल को ढकना जिससे पानी न उड़े व रख रखाव का उचित प्रबंध
जल पाइपों का रख रखाव का उचित प्रबंध जिससे जल अनावश्यक न बहे
यदि प्रत्येक भारतीय एक गिलास प्रतिदिन भी जल बचा सके तो जल संकट दूर होने में देर न होगी।
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Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti July 2019

आओ जल बचाओ जीवन बचाओ आंदोलन का हिस्सा बनें !

Jul
05

Fauji: A Garhwali story illustrating battle at border and patriotism

Fauji: A Garhwali story illustrating battle at border and patriotism
Chronological History and Review of Modern Garhwali Short Stories/Fiction Series)
(Review of Short story Collection ‘Meru Pahar ‘ (Stories written by Rakesh M. Thapliyal-4)
(Review of ‘Fauji ’ a short story (story written by Rakesh M. Thapliyal )
Review by: Bhishma Kukreti (Literature Historian)
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It is said that there is no family whose one family member is not in army . Therefore, it is common that most of Garhwali short story . Rakesh Mohan too penned down a story of Garhwali boy from a village visiting Narendra Nagar and joined Indian Territorial army. He had to face a terrist attack and he tried protecting his bosses in the attack. The soldier was severely injured. He was admitted in hospital. After getting healthy he came to village . Soon he returned to border for protecting his mother land.
The story is simple with least twists but interesting and inspirational too.
The language is from Tehri Garhwal but easily understood by the readers. Rakesh Mohan has been successful in depicting the life of villagers and soldiers.
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Short Story : Fauji
By Rakesh Mohan Thapliyal
From – Meru Pahar a story collection
Pub- Yugvani Prakashan
Dehradun
Year -2014
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti
Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Uttarkashi Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Tehri Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Pauri Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Rudraprayag Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Dehradun Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Garhwal, South Asia; Modern Garhwal Fiction /short stories from Haridwar Garhwal, South Asia;

Jul
04

Ser Ar Sava Ser : A Garhwali Skit illustrating crookedness of two crooks

Ser Ar Sava Ser : A Garhwali Skit illustrating crookedness of two crooks
(Chronological History and Review of Modern Garhwali Stage Plays)
(Review for Stage Play ‘Ser ar Sava Ser ’ the Stage play created by Kula Nand Ghanshala )
Review by: Bhishma Kukreti (Literature Historian and Critic)
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Ser Sava Ser Stage Play by Kula Nand Ghanshala is about two crooked natured persons in village ready to make fool each other .
There are two characters Jhabru (eager to steal orange of Ghuntya ) and Ghnutya ( stopping steal by Jhabru) .
The skit is simple and has suitable dialogues illustrating the characters of characters. -
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Ser Ar Sava Ser Cocktail (Small humorous Garhwali Skit)
By: Kula Nand Ghanshala
(From Rangchol a Garhwali Drama collection)
Publisher- Samay Sakshsya Prakashan
Dehradun
Published : Year 2019
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti

Jul
04

Botany /Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age in Indian Subcontinent

Botany /Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age in Indian Subcontinent
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent – 5
By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism History Researcher)
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Upendra Singh rightly states, “The term Mesolithic is relatively recent”. The historian divided Stone Pre Historic Age into – Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic ages.
Mesolithic age is said to be from 12000 BC to 4000 BC. But mostly, Mesolithic period is discussed around 10000 to 8000 BC in India. Though, the Mesolithic Culture survived till 4000 BC. The characteristics of Mesolithic Era is human using pointed and sharp stone tools and Human started using polished stone tools in Neolithic Era. That means Mesolithic era is the transit period between Palaeolithic and Neolithic Eras.
Sites of Mesolithic Age in India
Following sites are important Mesolithic Sites in India
Langhnaj (Gujrat)
Bagor (Rajsthan)
Sarai Nahar Rai , Chopani Mando, Mahdaha , Damdama (Uttar Pradesh)
Bhimbetka , Adamgarh (Madhya Pradesh)
Keonijhar (Orissa )
Palghat and Malappuram (Kerala)

By that period, men knew the differences of calories between plant diets and animal consumption and hard life for animal killing and digesting. Human changed the tools suiting plants uses than animal diet uses as in Keonjhar sites, the human beings used tools for wood working activities (2) . That shows the human got experiences of plants, tree’s wood quality and its economic uses either for shelter or other uses. The microlith tools invented by human beings show that human being gained knowledge of various plants and their uses. The post Mesolithic men even In India had started domestication of plants with a couple of animals. That shows that in Mesolithic period, men got or gathered know ledge of various plants their growing seasons and use. The Bogor and Adamgarh sites show that Human started cultivating plants for food around 7000 -6000 BC. . But humans experimented cultivation definitely in Mesolithic Age Definitely, Indian Mesolithic men found differences of the labour , and food values between animal hunting and plants uses. Human preferred plant cultivation against animal hunting as humans got knowledge of the economic uses of both.
Humans of Mesolithic Period knew ecology of plants and geographical factors for growing plants.
David Clarke made an observation that the majority of blade tools of Mesolithic Era were made for collecting plant food and tools were used less for animal food. David Clarke concluded that 80% of human food was from plants and was supplemented by 20 % from animals. (3). David Clarke observed by analysing tools of Mesolithic period that “ plant food gathering was 2.4 times more productive than animal hunting” (3).
The above observation and analysis by Clarke offer us direction that human got full knowledge of difference between plant food and animal food .Human beings also knew the labour differences between killing animals and using animal parts for food and using plants as food . Human knew economical difference between plant food and animal food.. Definitely men knew the no danger in using plant food and dangers in killing animals for food.
Definitely Mesolithic Men knew the uses of different plants and their respective parts/components for food uses . It is clear that humans got knowledge of medical uses (more than past) of plants and their respective parts. Humans knew the growing period , geographical conditions for each food plant growth in Mesolithic Era.
Mesolithic Men knew the knowledge of various plants for constructing structure .Definitely the humans also knew making pots for storing plants or plant parts (for food ) . Definitely, social structure was also evolved for distribution and collection of plant food. Slavery might have started from the Mesolithic period (perhaps). Archaeologists stated that humans of Mesolithic era (10000- 4000 BCE) used fruits , nuts of 63 plants (4) Mesolithic Era is nothing but humans preparing for agriculture revolution and agriculture revolution in Neolithic period .
References
1-Singh Upendra, 2008, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From stone Age to 2th Century Pearson Longman page 67-68
2- Mohanty Pradeep, Spring 1993, Mesolithic Hunters –Gatherers of Keonjhar District Orissa, India ,JSTOR (Asian perspective) Vol.32 No.1 Pages 85-104
3- Dhavalikar M.K. ‘Man and Environment in Prehistory’ from Recording the progress of Indian History: Symposia papers of the Indian History Congress 1992-2010 edited by SZH Zafri , page 3 to 26, page 11
4- B.M. Kumar et all ‘South Asian Agroforestry : Traditions, Transformations and prospects ‘ from Advances in Agroforestry 9 :The Future of Global Land Use (edited by Ramchandran Nair et all) Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg NY page 362
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Chhattisgarh , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Pakistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany/Plant Science Knowledge in Mesolithic Age and History of Botany of Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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